The Global Antibiotic Resistance Crisis
The prevalence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms (ARMs) is a growing concern to public health and animal health. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s report – Antibiotic Resistance threats in the United States, 2013, nearly 23,000 people each year are killed by ARM. Antibiotic resistance in the United States costs an estimated $20 billion a year in excess health care costs, $35 million in other societal costs and more than 8 million additional days that people spend in the hospital. The number of antibiotic resistant microbes is increasing and will continue to increase due to the slow development of new antibiotics and lack of alternative therapies for infectious diseases; once it has developed resistance to one or more antibiotics, it becomes increasingly difficult to control/treat a pathogen. While the process of acquiring resistance is fast, the regaining of antibiotic susceptibility is slow. To make this situation worse, new groups of ARMs are continually emerging. Recently carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae(CREs) have become a major concern in hospitals.