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Recent EPI Publications

Characterizing the Vector Data Ecosystem 

A growing body of information on vector-borne diseases has arisen as increasing research focus has been directed towards the need for anticipating risk, optimizing surveillance, and understanding the fundamental biology of vector-borne diseases to direct control and mitigation efforts. The scope and scale of this information, in the form of data, comprising database efforts, data storage, and serving approaches, means that it is distributed across many formats and data types.

Dynamics of anti-influenza mucosal IgA over a season in a cohort of individuals living or working in a long-term care facility 

Serological surveys are used to ascertain influenza infection and immunity, but evidence for the utility of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) as a correlate of infection or protection is limited. By comparing individuals with and without influenza illness, we demonstrated that mucosal IgA is a correlate of influenza infection. There was evidence for cross-reactivity in mucosal IgA across influenza A subtypes.

Pretomanid-resistant tuberculosis

An individualized intensified treatment with high-dose therapy was initiated and weekly monitoring of TTP, regular pDST and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing in mycobacteria growth indicator tubes (MGIT), gDST by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), TDM and electro-cardiographic (ECG) monitoring of the QTc-interval were performed. Drug concentrations were compared to reference values and observational studies

Effects of partially replacing dietary corn with sugars in a dual-flow continuous culture system on the ruminal microbiome

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding sugars as a replacement for starch on the ruminal microbiome using a dual-flow continuous culture system. Four periods of 10 days each were conducted with 8 fermenters in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Treatments included: 1) control with corn—CON, 2) molasses—MOL, 3) untreated condensed whey permeate—CWP, and 4) CWP treated with a caustic agent—TCWP as a partial substitute for corn.

Informing One Health Anthrax Surveillance and Vaccination Strategy from Spatial Analysis of Anthrax in Humans and Livestock in Ha Giang Province, Vietnam (1999–2020)

Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, has a nearly global distribution but is understudied in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam. Here, we used historical data from 1999 to 2020 in Ha Giang, a province in northern Vietnam. The objectives were to describe the spatiotemporal patterns and epidemiology of human and livestock anthrax in the province and compare livestock vaccine coverage with human and livestock anthrax incidence.

Clinical and pathological characterization of Central Nervous System cryptococcosis in an experimental mouse model of stereotaxic intracerebral infection

Infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS) by the encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can lead to high mortality meningitis, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. While the mechanisms by which the fungus crosses the blood-brain barrier to initiate infection in the CNS are well recognized, there are still substantial unanswered questions about the disease progression once the fungus is established in the brain.

Nonlethal detection of PFAS bioaccumulation and biomagnification within fishes in an urban- and wastewater-dominant Great Lakes watershed

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic endocrine disruptors that are particularly stable and pervasive due to strong carbon-fluorine bonds. They are known to bioaccumulate in protein-rich tissues of fish, and most cannot be eliminated with cooking. Despite studies linking PFAS to adverse health outcomes, there is a lack of international regulations of PFAS as a hazardous material.

Case Report: Chagas Disease in a Traveler Who Developed Esophageal Involvement Decades after Acute Infection

Travelers to Chagas disease endemic regions of Latin America may be at risk for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We report a 67-year-old woman who screened positive for T. cruzi infection while donating blood. The patient had a history of an unusual febrile illness and marked swelling of the face sustained at age 10 after camping in northern Mexico that led to a 3-week hospitalization without a diagnosis.

Pseudohepatospora borealis n. gen. n. sp. (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonida): a microsporidian pathogen of the Jonah crab (Cancer borealis)

The microsporidian diversity catalogued so far has resulted in the development of several taxonomic groups, one of which is the Enterocytozoonida – a group of generalist ‘ultimate opportunists’, which infect many fished and aquacultured animals, as well as a broad suite of host taxa, including humans. In this study, we provide phylogenetic, ultrastructural, developmental, and pathological evidence for the creation of a new genus and species to hold a microsporidian parasite of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis.