Posts tagged as

Vector-borne Disease

Exploring the Mosquito-Arbovirus Network: A Survey of Vector Competence Experiments

Arthropod-borne (arbo-) viruses face evolutionary pressures that favor generalism in the range of both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors that they can use. That flexibility can pose a particular problem for public health, as it both enables their spread into new locations and ecosystems and adds a layer of unpredictability to their dynamics upon arrival.

Analyzing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Designated Malaria Risk Areas in Nepal from 2018 to 2021

Malaria was a major public health issue in Nepal for much of the 20th century (Newby, 2015), but cases declined significantly in the past two decades, in response to concerted intervention efforts, as part of a push to elimination. Between 2010 and 2020, indigenous malaria declined by about 98% with only 73 cases reported in Nepal in 2020 (EDCD, 2021), and Nepal is preparing for malaria elimination by 2026.

Extensive regional variation in the phenology of insects and their response to temperature across North America

Climate change models often assume similar responses to temperatures across the range of a species, but local adaptation or phenotypic plasticity can lead plants and animals to respond differently to temperature in different parts of their range. To date, there have been few tests of this assumption at the scale of continents, so it is unclear if this is a large-scale problem.

Characterizing the Vector Data Ecosystem 

A growing body of information on vector-borne diseases has arisen as increasing research focus has been directed towards the need for anticipating risk, optimizing surveillance, and understanding the fundamental biology of vector-borne diseases to direct control and mitigation efforts. The scope and scale of this information, in the form of data, comprising database efforts, data storage, and serving approaches, means that it is distributed across many formats and data types.

Case Report: Chagas Disease in a Traveler Who Developed Esophageal Involvement Decades after Acute Infection

Travelers to Chagas disease endemic regions of Latin America may be at risk for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We report a 67-year-old woman who screened positive for T. cruzi infection while donating blood. The patient had a history of an unusual febrile illness and marked swelling of the face sustained at age 10 after camping in northern Mexico that led to a 3-week hospitalization without a diagnosis.

Human biting mosquitoes and implications for West Nile virus transmission

West Nile virus (WNV), primarily vectored by mosquitoes of the genus Culex, is the most important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America, having infected thousands of humans and countless wildlife since its arrival in the USA in 1999. In locations with dedicated mosquito control programs, surveillance methods often rely on frequent testing of mosquitoes collected in a network of gravid traps (GTs) and CO2-baited light traps (LTs). Traps specifically targeting oviposition-seeking (e.g. GTs) and host-seeking (e.g. LTs) mosquitoes are vulnerable to trap bias, and captured specimens are often damaged, making morphological identification difficult.

Everglades virus evolution: Genome sequence analysis of the envelope 1 protein reveals recent mutation and divergence in South Florida wetlands

Everglades virus (EVEV) is a subtype (II) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), endemic in southern Florida, USA. EVEV has caused clinical encephalitis in humans, and antibodies have been found in a variety of wild and domesticated mammals. Over 29,000 Culex cedecei females, the main vector of EVEV, were collected in 2017 from Big Cypress and Fakahatchee Strand Preserves in Florida and pool-screened for the presence of EVEV using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.