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Recent EPI Publications

Repellency, toxicity, and physiological actions of low molecular weight basic amines in mosquitoes

Mosquitoes are vectors of many human diseases and insect repellents play an important role in helping to prevent and control the outbreak of these diseases, as well as reducing nuisance biting. This study investigated the behavioral responses and toxicity of three basic amines: 1-methylpiperazine, 1-methylpyrrolidine, and triethylamine (TEA), compounds suggested previously to be anosmic in vapor exposures to caged mosquitoes.

Geography versus sociodemographics as predictors of changes in daily mobility across the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic: a two-stage regression analysis across 26 metropolitan areas

The location and characteristics of a zip code are important for determining changes in daily mobility patterns throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results can determine the efficacy of NPI implementation on multiple spatial scales and inform policy makers on whether certain NPIs should be implemented or lifted during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and when preparing for future public health emergencies.

Application of behavior data to predictive exploratory models of metritis self-cure and treatment failure in dairy cows

The objective was to evaluate the performance of exploratory models containing routinely available on-farm data, behavior data, and the combination of both to predict metritis self-cure (SC) and treatment failure (TF). Holstein cows (n = 1,061) were fitted with a collar-mounted automated-health monitoring device (AHMD) from −21 ± 3 to 60 ± 3 d relative to calving to monitor rumination time and activity.

The Role of Interleukin-22 in Controlling Virus Infections at Mucosal Surfaces

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is an IL-10 family cytokine that has gained interest in recent years owing to multiple functions in regulating immune response such as inflammation, protection against infection, and tissue repair. Many cell types can produce IL-22, such as innate lymphoid cells, T cells, and natural killer cells. In addition, cytokines or chemicals such as IL-7, IL-23, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor can regulate IL-22-producing cells and control IL-22 production.

Optimizing the detection of emerging infections using mobility-based spatial sampling

Timely and precise detection of emerging infections is imperative for effective outbreak management and disease control. Human mobility significantly influences the spatial transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. Spatial sampling, integrating the spatial structure of the target, holds promise as an approach for testing allocation in detecting infections, and leveraging information on individuals’ movement and contact behavior can enhance targeting precision.

Evaluating targeted COVID-19 vaccination strategies with agent-based modeling

We evaluate approaches to vaccine distribution using an agent-based model of human activity and COVID-19 transmission calibrated to detailed trends in cases, hospitalizations, deaths, seroprevalence, and vaccine breakthrough infections in Florida, USA. We compare the incremental effectiveness for four different distribution strategies at four different levels of vaccine supply, starting in late 2020 through early 2022.